This paper presents an extension of our recently introduced MAC model to deal with the initialization dependency problem that commonly appears in edge-based approaches. Its dynamic force field, unique bidirectionality, and constrained diffusion-based level set evolution provide great freedom in contour initialization and show significant improvements in initialization independency compared to other edge-based techniques. It can handle more sophisticated topological changes than splitting and merging. It provides new potentials for edge-based active contour methods, particularly when detecting and localizing objects with unknown location, geometry, and topology.
Xianghua Xie, Active Contouring Based on Gradient Vector Interaction and Constrained Level Set Diffusion, IEEE Transactions on Image Processing (T-IP), volume 19, number 1, pages 154 – 164, IEEE CS Press, January 2010.